Lektion 2. Personalpronomen

Monday, December 21, 2009

From the previous posts, I have told about 3 gender in Deutsch : (Maskulin, Feminin, und Neutral). Now, we learn about the personal pronoun (so wie 'he, she, it' auf Englisch).

Maskulin (der) : er
z.B :
-Lernt der Schüler Deutsch? Ja, er lernt Deutsch.
-Wo ist der Bleistift (pencil)? Er ist hier.

Neutral (das) : es
z.B :
- Geht das Kind in die Schule? Ja, es geht in die Schule.
- Liegt das Buch dort? Ja, es liegt dort.

Feminin (die) : sie
z.B :
- Kommt Frau Meier aus Berlin? Nein, sie kommt aus München.
- Wo liegt die Stadt Hamburg? Sie liegt in Deutschland.

Übung :
Wo liegt das Buch? _ liegt hier.
2. Liegt der Bleistift auch hier? Nein, _ liegt nicht hier.
3. Kommt Frau Meier? Nein, _ kommt nicht.
4. Lernt das Kind fleißig? Ja, _ lernt fleißig.
5. Fragt Herr Robert viel? Ja, _ fragt viel.
6. Antwortet Richard richtig? Ja, _ antwortet richtig.
7. Wo ist die Landkarte? _ liegt dort.
8. Ist mein Heft hier? Ja, _ ist hier.
9. Arbeitet Herr Karlis viel? Ja, _ arbeitet viel.
10. Wo ist das Heft? Hier liegt _.

Glossar (Vocabulary)
liegen = located
fleißig = dilligent
faul = lazy
richting = correct
falsch = wrong
das Heft = notebook
die Landkarte = map
dort = there
hier = here

Die Antwort der Übung
(Answer of Exercise)
1. es 2. er 3. sie 4. es 5. er 6. er 7. sie 8. es 9. er 10. es

German School System

Sunday, December 20, 2009


The German education system is different in many ways from the ones in Anglo-Saxon countries, but it produces high-performing students. Although education is a function of the federal states, and there are differences from state to state, some generalizations are possible.

Children aged three to six may attend kindergarten. After that school is compulsory for nine or ten years. From grades 1 through 4 children attend elementary school (Grundschule), where the subjects taught are the same for all. Then, after the 4th grade, they are separated according to their academic ability and the wishes of their families, and attend one of three different kinds of schools: Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium.

The Hauptschule (grades 5-9 in most German states) teaches the same subjects as the Realschule and Gymnasium, but at a slower pace and with some vocational-oriented courses. It leads to part-time enrollment in a vocational school combined with apprenticeship training until the age of 18.

The Realschule (grades 5-10 in most states) leads to part-time vocational schools and higher vocational schools. It is now possible for students with high academic achievement at the Realschule to switch to a Gymnasium on graduation.

The Gymnasium (grades 5-13 in most states) leads to a degree called the Abitur and prepares students for university study or for a dual academic and vocational credential. The most common education tracks offered by the standard Gymnasium are classical language, modern language, and mathematics-natural science.

Grundschule teachers recommend their students to a particular school based on such things as academic achievement, self confidence and ability to work independently. However, in most states, parents have the final say as to which school their child attends following the fourth grade.

The Gesamtschule, or comprehensive school, is a more recent development and is only found in some of the states. It takes the place of both the Hauptschule and Realschule and arose out of the egalitarian movements in the 1960s. It enrolls students of all ability levels in the 5th through the 10th grades. Students who satisfactorily complete the Gesamtschule through the 9th grade receive the Hauptschule certificate, while those who satisfactorily complete schooling through the 10th grade receive the Realschule certificate.

No matter what kind of school a student attends, he/she must complete at least nine years of education. A student dropping out of a Gymnasium, for example, must enroll in a Realschule or Hauptschule until nine years have been completed.

Beyond the Haupschule and Realschule lies the Berufsschule, combining part-time academic study and apprenticeship. The successful completion of an apprenticeship program leads to certification in a particular trade or field of work. These schools differ from the other ones mentioned in that control rests not with the local and regional school authorities, but with the federal government, industry and the trade unions.

German children only attend school in the morning. There is no provision for serving lunch. There is a lot more homework, heavy emphasis on the "three R's" and very few extracurricular activities.

A free higher education could lie beyond a German Abitur. No tuition is charged at Germany's hundred or so institutes of higher learning, but students must prove through examinations that they are qualified.

There are several varieties of university-level schools. The classical universities, in the tradition of Alexander von Humboldt, provide a broad general education and students usually attend them for six and one-half years. The Technical Universities (Technische Hochschulen) are more aimed at training students for specific careers and are usually attended for four and one-half years. There are also Hochschulen for art and music.

The whole German education system, including the universities, is available at no charge to the children of bona fide expatriates. The catch, of course, is that the classes are conducted in German, which is usually all right for school beginners but becomes more and more of a problem as the children get older.

Study in Germany


Germany offers quality education within 339 universities across the country. Technical schools, business or engineering schools ("Fachochschule") with an emphasis on vocational training are also available to foreign students. Several other schools and language institutes offer German courses for foreigners.

Study in Germany - Student Life - general information:

In order to register with an institution of higher education in Germany, a secondary school diploma or equivalent is necessary ("Abitur" in Germany). If you don't exactly know whether your degree is recognized as equivalent to a secondary school diploma in Germany, you must take the eligibility test of the university of your choice. The other prerequisite to enter a German school or university is sufficient proficiency in German, except if the purpose of your study stay is to attend German courses for instance. In all other cases, you should be holder of one of the following German language certifications: TestDaF, ZOP, KDS or GDS. You can take these tests either in a Goethe Institute abroad or directly in Germany. For more information about German assessment tests, visit the Goethe Institute website at http://www.goethe.de.

Regarding the registration procedures, contact the international students office of the chosen school or university ("Akademisches Auslandsamt") and provide the necessary documentation to proceed with your application including: a copy of your secondary school diploma or equivalent, the official translation in German of your diploma, a passport-sized photo, a detailed description of your school, university or professional curriculum, your German language certificate if applicable (TestDaF or other) and the eligibility test if applicable. Applications must be filed before January 15 for the summer semester (beginning in April) or before July 15 for the winter semester (beginning in October).

If you are a citizen of the EU-EEA and in the case your study course is subjected to registration quotas, you must submit your application through the ZVS ("Zentralstelle für die Vergabe von Studiengängen"). Additional information is available at http://www2.zvs.de/.

German universities, which used to be free in the past, have recently introduced tuition fees. A full semester in a German university costs around €500. Tuition fees may vary according to universities or regions, but the trend is to a gradual rise in tuition fees costs. You can find out more information about scholarships in Germany directly through your current school or university or through the German embassy or consulate in your area. Your host institution may also offer scholarships or grants. Do not hesitate to contact them for further information.

IMPORTANT: The information provided above only concern registration procedures with a German school or university. According to your origin, you'll perhaps need to apply for a student visa at the German embassy or consulate in your home country.

Study in Germany - formalities for nationals of the EU-EEA:

Citizens of the EU-EEA can freely come and study in Germany with very few formalities to undertake, provided that they comply with basic entry requirements (secondary school diploma or equivalent for example). A valid passport, proof of enrollment in a German school or university as well as sufficient financial guarantees are required.

Citizens of the EU-EEA can also benefit from the ERASMUS programme in Germany. The ERASMUS programme is designed for students of the EEA-EU plus Turkey wishing to study in an other EU-EEA country. Diplomas and degrees obtained abroad in the framework of the ERASMUS programme are valid in your home country via the European Credit Transfer and accumulation System (ECTS). ERASMUS grants are also available to students who carry out studies in another european state via the programme.

You can find more information about the ERASMUS programme and the ERASMUS grants available directly through your home university or by visiting the European Commission website at http://ec.europa.eu/.


Do not forget to legalize your status in Germany by applying for a residency certificate ("Meldebescheinigung") within eight days after arrival. You can apply for your certificate directly at the city hall of your German locality.

Study in Germany - formalities for citizens from outside the EU-EEA:

If you are a citizen from outside the EU-EEA, you must apply for a student visa at the German embassy or consulate in your home country.

There are three kinds of student visas: visa for language courses, temporary student visa valid up to three months and the student visa per se.

Visa for language course in Germany:

Visas for language course are granted to foreign students intending to take German courses in Germany. The visa is valid for the entire duration of the study course only and can not be exchanged for a regular student visa. To apply for a language course visa, you must file your application to the German embassy or consulate in your home country. The application documents' checklist includes: a valid passport plus two passport-sized photos, proof of registration in a German language institute, financial guarantees or scholarship attestation, and payment of visa fees.

The student temporary visa - "Studienbewerber-Visum":

If you have not received your admission receipt from your host school or university in Germany, and if you need to take admission tests directly in Germany, you can apply for a temporary student visa (valid up to three months). Once you have been admitted to your school or university, you can apply for a regular student visa at the German immigration office. The visa documents' checklist is the same as for the language course visa.

The student visa:

The student visa allows foreign students to study up to one year in Germany. Applications must be filed at the German embassy or consulate in your country of residence. The application documents' checklist includes: a valid passport plus two passport-sized photos, a copy of your secondary school diploma (or equivalent) or your eligibility test, financial attestations or scholarship attestations, copies of all your degrees and diplomas, proof of registration with a German school or university and payment of visa fees.

Internship in Germany:

There is no internship visa per se in Germany as it is considered as part of one's study curriculum. Therefore, in order to take an intership in Germany, a regular student visa is required. Most interships in Germany are unpaid.

Good to know:

You can take up employment in Germany with a student visa up to 90 days and only during holidays.

Useful links:

DAAD - Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst - Studies in Germany


ZVS - Zentralstelle für die Vergabe von Studiengängen


Goethe Institute


Franco-German University


Some German Phrases Part 1

Guten Morgen = Good morning
Guten Tag = Hello / Good afternoon
Guten Abend = Good evening
Gute Nacht = Good night

Auf Wiedersehen = Goodbye (Formal)
Tschüß = Bye (Informal)
Bis bald = See you soon
Bis dann = See you later
Bis Morgen = See you tomorrow

Danke Schön / Vielen Dank = Thank you
Bitte Schön = You're welcome
Entschuldigung Sie bitte = Excuse me
Es tut mir leid = I'm sorry

Lektion 1. Konjugation

ich = I -----> ~e
du = you(informal) -----> ~(e)st
er = he -----> ~(e)t
sie = she -----> ~(e)t
es = it -----> ~(e)t
wir = we -----> ~en
ihr = you (plural) -----> ~(e)t
Sie = you (Formal) -----> ~en
sie = they -----> ~en

Wie heißen Sie? (what's ur name?)
-Ich heiße Irawan.
-Mein Name ist Irawan.

Woher kommen Sie, Herr Irawan? (where do you come from?)
-Ich komme aus Indonesien

Wo wohnen Sie? (where do you live?)
-Ich wohne in Medan.

heißen (to name)
ich heiße
du heißt
er heißt
sie heißt
es heißt
wir heißen
ihr heißt
Sie heißen
sie heißen

wohnen (to live)
ich wohne
du wohnst
er wohnt
sie wohnt
es wohnt
wir wohnen
ihr wohnt
Sie wohnen
sie wohnen

kommen (to come)
ich komme
du kommst
er kommt
sie kommt
es kommt
wir kommen
ihr kommt
Sie kommen
sie kommen

sagen (to say)
ich sage
du sagst
er sagt
sie sagt
es sagt
wir sagen
ihr sagt
Sie sagen
sie sagen

Verbs end with ~t,~d,~öffn :

arbeiten (to work)
ich arbeite
du arbeitest
er arbeitet
sie arbeitet
es arbeitet
wir arbeiten
ihr arbeitet
Sie arbeiten
sie arbeiten

bilden (to build)
ich bilde
du bildest
er bildet
sie bildet
es bildet
wir bilden
ihr bildet
Sie bilden
sie bilden

öffnen (to open)
ich öffne
du öffnest
er öffnet
sie öffnet
es öffnet
wir öffnen
ihr öffnet
Sie öffnen
sie öffnen

Konjugation 'sein' und 'haben'

sein (verb to be)
ich bin
du bist
er ist
sie ist
es ist
wir sind
ihr seid
Sie sind
sie sind

haben (to have)
ich habe
du hast
er hat
sie hat
es hat
wir haben
ihr habt
Sie haben
sie haben

Those verbs above are in Präsens (Present Tense).

Übung :
Richard und Peter komm_ aus England. Sie lern_ hier Deutsch.
2. Ich frage Richard Robertson und Peter Karlis : ,,Komm_ Sie aus Spanien?"
3. ,,Nein, wir komm_ aus England; wir komm_ nicht aus Spanien. "
4. Ich frage Anton Brega : ,,Geh_ Sie hier in die Schule?"
5. ,,Ja, ich lern_ hier Deutsch. Ich geh_ in die Schule und arbeit_ viel. "
6. Anton frag_ , und Richard antwort_.
7. ,,Komm_ ihr aus England? Arbeit_ ihr oft zusammen?"
8. ,,Ja, aber Peter arbeit_ nicht viel, er lern_ schnell."
9. ,,Ja Richard, du arbeit_ viel, aber du lern_ langsam."
10. Ich frag_, und du antwort_. Die Schüler frag_, und der Lehrer antwort_.

fragen = to ask
die Frage = question
antworten = to answer
die Antwort = answer
Deutsch = German (language)
die Schule = school
der Schüler = student (male)
die Schülerin = student (female)
der Lehrer = teacher (male)
die Lehrerin = teacher (female)
lernen = to study
viel = many
oft = often
zusammen = together
aber = but
und = and
schnell = fast
langsam = slow

Die Antwort der Übung
(Answer of Exercise)
1. kommen ; lernen
2. kommen
3. kommen ; kommen
4. gehen
5. lerne ; gehe ; arbeite
6. fragt ; antwortet
7. kommt ; arbeitet
8. arbeitet ; lernt
9. arbeitest ; lernst
10. frage ; antwortest ; fragt ; antwortet

das Alphabet

Saturday, December 19, 2009

Download the aplhabet mp3 here or here .

das Alphabet
The German Alphabet and Its Sounds
A a ah der Apparat (appliance)
Ä ä ay die Fähre (ferry)
B b bay das Buch (book)
C c say der Computer
D d day dunkel (dark)
E e ay elf (eleven),
F f eff faul (lazy)
G g gay das Gehirn (brain)
H h haa die Hand (hand), halb (half)
I i eeh der Igel (hedgehog), immer (always)
J j yot das Jahr (year), jung (young)
K k kah der Kalender (calendar), kennen (know)
L l ell langsam (slow, slowly), die Leute (people)
M m emm mein (my), der Mann (man)
N n enn die Nacht (night), nein (no), nicht (not)
O o oh das Ohr (ear), die Oper (opera)
Ö ö ooh Österreich (Austria)
P p pay das Papier (paper)
Q q koo die Quelle (source)
R r err das Rathaus (city hall)
S s ess die Sache (matter), das Salz (salt), seit (since)
ß ess-zett
(s-z ligature)
die Straße (street)
T t tay der Tag (day)
U u ooh unter (below)
Ü ü uyuh die Tür (door)
V v fow der Vater (father)
W w vay die Woche (week)
X x ixx das Xylofon
Y y oop-see-
der Yen (yen)
Z z zett zahlen (pay),

Die Einleitung ( Introduction )

Friday, December 18, 2009

Every german noun has a gender (masculine/ feminime/ netral). The gender is shown in the article of the noun.
z.B (zum Beispiel / For example) :
der Mann (the man)
die Frau (the woman)
das Kind (the child)

The are 4 cases in german grammar : Nominativ , Akkusativ , Dativ , Genetiv . Each case will be discussed by the next posts.
Each case is marked by the changing article.
Nominativ case is the normal case. The articles from the example above are in Nominativ form.
Every noun in german must be written in capital letter.
z.B :
Der Mann ist mein Vater (The man is my father).

The articles of german nouns should be memorized. However, there are some hints on determining the gender of a noun.

männlich (Maskulin)
z.B : der Vater, der Mann, der Sohn (son), der Bruder (brother), der Herr (mister)

- weiblich (Feminin)
z.B : die Mutter, die Frau, die Tochter (daughter), die Schwester (sister), die Dame (lady)

- ~chen ; ~lein (Neutral)
z.B : das Mädchen (lady), das Fräulein (miss), das Schwesterlein (sisterhood)

- Tag (day), Monat (month), Jahreszeit (season) (Maskulin)
z.B : der Montag (monday) , der Januar (january) , der Frühling (spring)

- Baum (tree), Frucht (fruit), (Blume) (Feminim)
z.B : die Linde (lemonade), die Banane (banana), die Lilie (lily) . BUT : der Apfel

- Stadt (State), Land (country) (Neutral)
z.B : das München , das Hongkong , das Schweder , das Deutschland (Germany)
Exception : die Schweiz (Swiss), die Turkei, der Iran, der Irak, die Niederlande

- ~keit,~heit,~schaft,~ung,~ion (Feminim)
z.B : die Freundlichkeit, die Freundschaft, die Wochnung, die Information

- ~tum,~ment,~ium,~um (Neutral)
z.B : das Christentum, das Intrument, das Gymnasium, das Museum, das Datum

There are 3 additional vocals in german : ä (e) , ü (ue) , ö (ee)
'eu' and 'äe' are read as 'oi' for boy
'ei' is read as 'ei' for eye


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